Revenue

ASPE: 3400

Revenue

ASPE: 3400

Presenting Revenue: Gross vs. Net Revenue
  • The amounts collected on behalf of the principal by an agent are not revenue. Instead, revenue is the amount of commission
  • The principal is the person who:
    • sets the prices
    • owns the inventory
    • is responsible for inventory risk after the sale
    • bears the ultimate credit risk of customer not paying
  • The agent is the person who:
    • Earns a fixed fee per transaction
    • Earns a percentage of the sales
Example
  • An agent makes a sale of $1,000 on behalf of a principal and remits $950
  • The agent will report revenues of $50 (rather than revenues of $1,000 and COGS of $950)
  • The principal will report revenues of $1,000 and show COGS of $50
  • Reporting revenue gross vs. net has no effect on the overall net income
Identification of the transaction (Multiple Deliverables)
  • it is necessary to apply the recognition criteria to the separately identifiable components of a single transaction in order to reflect the substance of the transaction
    • when a component of a sale
      • has stand-alone value (i.e. it may be sold separately alone); and
      • the fair value of that component can be objectively measured
    • the revenue recognition criteria (below) are assessed for each of the above-mentioned components separately
    • revenue for the components can be accounted for using the:
      1. Residual value method – whereby the fair value of one component is measured, and the other component is measured at the residual amount of the proceeds
        • use this method when FV for one component is not determinable
      2. Relative value method – the proceeds are allocated to the components based on their relative fair value
        • use this method when FV for all components are determinable
Example

A fitness club sells a $1,000 annual gym membership. In addition to annual usage of the gym, the $1,000 also entitles the user 10 hours with a fitness trainer.

  • Stand-alone value ; The monthly usage and the fitness trainer time both have stand-alone value because a person can buy it separately
  • Fair Value; can be objectively because, they are also separately sold
  • $1,000 will be allocated to the components using either the relative value or the residual value method
  • The rev rec criteria will be assessed separately for the annual membership and the fitness trainer time
  • The annual membership will be recognized on a straight line basis over monthly
  • The fitness trainer time will be recognized as the trainer spends the time with the user
Revenue Recognition

Revenue from sale of goods and service is recognized when performance is achieved provided that at the time of performance ultimate collection is reasonably assured

Sale of Goods
  • In a transaction involving the sale of goods, performance is achieved when the following conditions are met:
    1. the seller of the goods has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership, in that all significant acts have been completed; and
    2. the seller retains no continuing managerial involvement in, or effective control of, the goods transferred to a degree usually associated with ownership; and
    3. reasonable assurance exists regarding the measurement of the consideration that will be derived from the sale of goods, and the extent to which goods may be returned
  • When refunds are offered, as long as the future returns can be reasonably estimated based on past track record or other relevant factors, a revenue can be recognized (net of the provision for the return)
  • Examples of a significant risk of ownership being retained by a seller are:
    • when there is a liability for unsatisfactory performance not covered by normal warranty provisions;
    • when the purchaser has the right to cancel the transaction
    • when the goods are shipped on consignment
Rendering of services
  • In the case of rendering of services and long-term contracts, revenue is recognized using either the percentage of completion method or the completed contract method, whichever relates the revenue to the work accomplished
  • Such performance is achieved when reasonable assurance exists regarding the measurement of the consideration that will be derived from rendering the service or performing the long-term contract.
Percentage of completion method
  • The percentage of completion method is used when performance consists of more than one act
  • revenue would be recognized proportionately by reference to the performance of each act.
  • Revenue recognized under this method would be determined on a rational and consistent basis such as
    • basis of sales value
    • associated costs
    • extent of progress
    • number of acts
    • Amounts billed are not an appropriate basis of measurement unless they reflect the work accomplished
  • When several acts are performed over time, and when no single act is more significant than the other, revenue is recognized on a straight line basis
Completed Contract Method
  • The completed contract method would only be appropriate when:
    • the performance consists of the execution of a single act; or
    • when the enterprise cannot reasonably estimate the extent of progress toward completion.
Performance
  • For both goods and services, performance is achieved when all of the following criteria have been met:
    • persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists;
    • delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; and
    • the sellers’ price to the buyer is fixed or determinable
Persuasive evidence of an arrangement
  • we examine the arrangement to determine if in substance it is a revenue transaction (rather than what it may be called)
  • some things that we consider to see if persuasive evidence of revenue arrangement exists are as follows:
    • customary business practices – what binds the customer (i.e. signature on invoice)
    • side arrangements – could override the original arrangement
    • consignment arrangements – revenue cannot be recognized until the goods are sold by the consignee
    • rights to return the product/requirements to repurchase the product – revenue can only be recognized when returns can be reasonably estimated
Delivery
  • delivery is not considered to have occurred unless the product has been delivered to the site specified by the customer
  • things to consider if delivery has occurred include:
    • bill and hold arrangements (can recognize sale when goods ready for delivery)
    • customer acceptance of product (need to wait till acceptance)
    • layaway sales arrangements (i.e. cash deposits – these are deferred revenues – delivery occurs when the service for the deposit performed)
    • non-refundable fee arrangements (upfront fees – these are deferred revenues– delivery occurs when the service for the deposit performed)
    • licensing and similar fee arrangements (recognize over licence term)
Seller’s price to buyer is fixed
  • Consider the following to determine if the seller’s price to the buyer is fixed or determinable:
    • cancellable sales arrangements (price may not be fixed till cancellation period ends)
    • right of return arrangements (cannot recognize revenue unless you can predict the returns – for new products this is hard to do)
    • price protections and/or inventory credit arrangements (cannot recognize revenue unless you can predict these amounts)
    • refundable fee for service arrangements (revenue recognized over the length of the contract, if you can estimate the refunds/cancellations – otherwise wait till the cancellation period ends)
Interest, royalties and dividends

Revenue arising from the use by others of enterprise resources yielding interest, royalties and dividends is recognized when reasonable assurance exists regarding measurement and collectability. These revenues shall be recognized on the following bases:

  • interest: on a time proportion basis
  • royalties: as they accrue
  • dividends: when the shareholder’s right to receive payment is established
Effect of Uncertainties
Uncertainties due to collection
  • When there is uncertainty as to ultimate collection, it may be appropriate to recognize revenue only as cash is received
  • Gross profit = total gross profit * (cash received/total sales price)
Uncertainties due to measurement of revenue
  • Examples
    • when payment relating to goods sold depends on the resale of the goods by the buyer
    • significant and unpredictable amounts of goods could be returned (occurs when the market for the product is untested)
  • under both cases, revenue would not be recognized until the revenue can be more reliably measured (i.e. when the buyer has sold the goods, or when the return period ends)
Payments by a vendor to a customer
From customer’s view point
  • Cash received by a customer from a vendor is normally treated as a reduction to the purchase price (rather than revenue)
    • However, if the cash is a receipt for goods or services delivered by the customer to the vendor, the customer recognizes the cash as revenue
  • If the cash is meant to reimburse the customer for the costs to re-sell the vendor’s products, the customer treats the cash as a reduction to the costs to sell the vendor’s product
From vendor’s view point
  • Cash paid by a vendor to a customer is normally treated as a reduction to the selling price (rather than an expense)
  • Cash paid by a vendor to a customer is expensed when the following conditions are met:
    • The vendor receives, or will receive, an identifiable benefit (products or services) in exchange for the consideration
      • i.e., the vendor could have entered into a transaction with a party other than the purchaser of its products or services in order to receive this benefit
    • The vendor can reasonably estimate the fair value of the benefit identified under the first condition
Comparison to IFRS
  • under IFRS, the revenue recognition criteria are slightly different
  • under IFRS, the completed contract method is not allowed

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